Compositions in chronological order
(All compositions published through American Composers Alliance (NY, NY) unless otherwise noted.)
Until the War is Over (in progress) one-act opera with librettist Jennifer Moxley, based on H.D.’s autobiographical novel Bid Me to Live. For 4 singers, flute, saxophone, double bass, piano, and electronic sound.
Before the Snow (2014) for the Vermont Symphony’s Made in Vermont tour, Fall 2014.
Restless (2013) for the AdZel Duo, clarinetists Stephanie Zelnick and Mariam Adam, for premiere in 2014.
When silly bees could speak (2013) for baritone, bass clarinet, trumpet and trombone. Text by Robert, Earl of Essex. For performance by loadbang, in 2014.
The Pearl Divers and Hungry (2013) for mezzo-soprano, ‘cello and piano. On poems by Rosalie Calabrese. Written for Marcia Gronewold Sly.
No Matter What (2013) for clarinet and electronic sound (fixed media). Premiered at Bates College, January 31, 2014.
Bomp Stomp (2013) arrangement of BOMP for oboe, English horn, violin, viola, ‘cello and percussion.
Minor blasts, some flurries (2013) for string quartet with optional video accompaniment. Adapted from an earlier work. Premiered in May 2013, by the Portland Chamber Music Festival, at SPACE Gallery.
Mass (2013) for SATB chorus, clarinet trio and piano. Three movements premiered in 2012-13 by the UMaine University Singers.
Sallee and Rumsey at Mann Gulch (2012) for bass trombone and DVD. Written for Dan Barrett, and premiered in November 2012. Part of the Young Men and Fire multimedia series based on the work of Norman Maclean.
For Augusto (2012) short work for solo clarinet.
The Only Color I Have (2011) 3 songs on poems by Sarah Manguso, for soprano, mezzo-soprano and flute/piccolo. Written for Marcia Gronewold Sly and Karen Pendleton. Premiered in March 2013, also performer at the SCI/Parma Music Festival in Portsmouth, NH, August 2013.
Crowded Sourcing (2011) for violin and recorded accompaniment. Written for Morgan Evans Weiler, for Composer-to-Composer, Brunswick, Maine, Nov. 16, 2011.
Sharp Nostalgia (2011) for bass clarinet and piano. Performed by the composer with pianist Geoffrey Burleson, October 2012.
Let us in a lovers’ round (2011) for SATB chorus, flute and piano. Premiered by UMaine University Singers, 2012.
The Star Theatre (2011) for clarinet, piano and DVD. Premiered in January, 2012. Programmed at the Electroacoustic Barn Dance, Virginia, November 2012.
Walkabout (2011) for bass clarinet and percussion.
Fleuron (2011) for clarinet, ‘cello and piano. Premiered at the UMaine Patrons of the Arts Hartgen Award Ceremony, April 2011.
Bomp (2011) for two bassoons and marimba. Written for Rachael Elliott, Tuple Bassoon Duo.
Barboteo (2010) for violin, clarinet and piano. Premiered in Puebla, Mexico, May 2011.
Di Camera (2010) for trumpet, ‘cello and piano. Four movements, premiered in February 2011 by Jack Burt, Marisa Solomon and Laura Artesani.
Segue (2010) for bass clarinet and prerecorded sound. Composed for the “Painters, Players and Poets” project of the Maine Center for Creativity. Recorded version on tour with exhibits beginning July 2011.
Railways (2010) for chamber orchestra and DVD. Written for the UMaine Orchestra.
Winter Weather Advisory (2010) for clarinet and ‘cello. Premiered by Cadenzato, September 2010.
Distant Watchers (2009) trio for The Hymn Tune Project, premiered in New York City in May, 2010. Also performed at the Seasons Festival, Yakima, WA, Oct. 2010.
In a twinkling, we will all be changed (2009) for concert band. Written for the UMaine Symphonic Band for its 2009 regional tour, April 2010.
Stand facing the stove (2009) For bass clarinet and DVD. Premiered by the composer at Reveille Festival, Vermont, August 2009, and at UMaine in October, 2009.
In Memory (2009) for soprano and percussion. Three songs on poems by Robin Behn. Finalist in the Aurora Borealis Composition Competition, 2009.
Suite for Dieter (2009) Commissioned by Dieter Hennings Yeoman. For flute, guitar and double bass. Movements “Intrada,” Pavanne” and” Zanzarabanda” premiered at Clark University, April 17, 2009.
Blessing of the Animals (2008)for SATB chorus and piano. Commissioned by the University Singers, UMaine. Premiered March 2009, on Singers’ East Coast tour.
Paul Rice Songs (2008) for soprano, flute and guitar. On texts by Paul Rice, commissioned by Coastal Carolina University or premiere in March 2009. Honorable Mention, IAWM Search for New Music, Miriam Gideon Prize, 2010.
Adjusting the Sails (2008) for women’s chorus and DVD. Written for the Athena Consort. Commissioned by the UMaine Climate Change Institute and premiered in October 2008.
Crows everywhere are equally black (2008) for viola, clarinet and DVD. Written for Anatole Wieck, premiered in Maine, Fall 2008. Also programmed at the Reveille Festival, VT and selected for performance at the New York Electroacoustic Music Festival, April 2, 2009, at the CUNY Graduate Center, and at the Portland Conservatory New Music Festival, April 2010.
Sax and Spend (2008) for alto saxophone and concert band. Written for soloist Christopher Strange, premiered in Maine, November, 2008.
On Time (2007) for SATB chorus, flute, trumpet and piano. On a poem by Phillis Levin. Written for the University of Maine Singers, for the Spring 2008 tours in Northeast US and Europe.
Pedal Tune (2007) for alto flute, bass clarinet and DVD (electronic sound/video). Premiered in October 2007 at UMaine. Also performed on the January 2008 Cadenzato faculty concert at UMaine. Also performed at Texas A&M Univ.-Commerce, fall 2010.
Trio “Stepandahalf” (2007) for oboe, clarinet and bassoon. Premiered at the Reveille Music Festival, August 2007, and also programmed by the Intersection Ensemble at Sam Houston University, April 2008.
Brass Rings (2007) for 8 trumpets. Written for the UMaine Trumpet Ensemble. Premiered at the ITG Conference in May 2007 at UMass.
Running to the Shore (2006) for chamber orchestra. Written for the Conners Emerson School Orchestra, Bar Harbor, Maine. Premiered in June 2007.
Ingrained (2006) for two marimbas. Written for the Doubleplay Percussion Duo. Premiered in Oct. 2006 in New York City. Also performed on tour by Amphion Percussion in 2010-11.
For he is good to think on (2006) for flute, clarinet and DVD (electronic sound and video). Using excerpts from Christopher Smart’s poetry . Premiered in Dorchester, MA, Feb. 2006. Also performed at Wind-Percussion Day, UMaine, March 2006, in Portland, Maine Sept. 2006, and at Hamilton College, Nov. 2006. Canadian premiere by the Motion Ensemble, New Brunswick, Jan. 2007.
The Primary Tool is Soup (2005) for soprano, piano and DVD (electronic sound and video). Based on a poem by Robin Behn. Written for Susan Narucki. Version for solo clarinet and DVD completed 2005. Premiere of clarinet version at the International Association of Women in Music Congress, May 2006. Premiere of vocal version at the ACA Festival of New Music, New York City, June 2006.
Evening Winds (2005) for concert band. Commissioned by the Hancock School Band, Maine. Premiered Jan. 2006.
On Thursday (2005) for soprano, ‘cello and DVD (electronic sound and video). Based on a poem by Robin Behn. Written for Susan Narucki.
Skating in the short program (2005) for solo violin. Premiered by Anatole Wieck in Oct. 2006.
Erie, on the periphery (2005) for clarinet and piano. Premiered on the ACA Festival, NYC, with Ben Fingland and Marilyn Nonken, June 2008. Also selected for performance at the IAWM 2011 Congress in Flagstaff, AZ.
Slow Burn (2005) for flute, bass clarinet and marimba. Premiered by Cadenzato, Sept. 2005.
A change in the weather (2005) for piano and DVD (electronic sound and video). Premiered by Marilyn Nonken at the ACA Festival in New York, June 2007. Also performed at the Bowling Green “Music at the Forefront” Series and at New York University, February 2008. Selected as part of the World Electroacoustic Listening Room Project, March 13th, Cal State Fullerton as part of the 9th Annual New Music Festival: The Pianist in the 21st Century, March 7-13, 2010.
Blasts, gusts, squalls, drafts and flurries (2004) for string quartet and DVD. Based on a poem by David Barber.
Winnifred Goes Outside (2004) for jazz band. Written for The Edith Jones Project, Premiered in February, 2005. Also performed by the UMaine Jazz Ensemble, April 2007.
Piece Goods (2004) for mandolin and guitar. Written for Duo Ahlert & Schwab to be premiered in February, 2006 in Unna, Germany. Also performing in Oct. 2006 in Dortmund, Germany.
Hearne Songs (2004) six movements for soprano and chamber ensemble with electronic sound and video. Based on the poems of the late Vicki Hearne. First movement, Prayer, completed and recorded May, 2004. Second movement, Riding a nervous horse, premiered August 2004 at Ayers Island Arts Festival. Also selected for Imagine2 Festival, Memphis, TN, November 2004. Fourth movement, A Country Scene, premiered by Motion Ensemble, New Brunswick, Canada, January 2005 along with Prayer. Final movement, The Horse that, Trotting, premiered at ACA Festival, New York, June 2005.
Almost Enough (2004) for electronic sound and video. Based on a poem of the same name by Greg Djanikian.
Young Men and Fire multimedia project in several parts. First section, Crown Fires, for computer-generated sound, programmed by the Electric Rainbow Festival at Dartmouth College, August 2003. Second section, Jansson at Mann Gulch, commissioned by John Sampen, premiered in 2004 at Heidelburg New Music Festival, for saxophone, electronic sound and video. Also selected for Third Practice Festival, Richmond, VA October 2004 and performed at Bowling Green April, 2010. Third section, Dodge at Mann Gulch, for B-flat clarinet, electronic sound and video, completed 2004, and selected for performance at the North Carolina Computer Music Festival, February 2006, and at the University of New Mexico Symposium on New Music, April 2006. Also programmed at the ClarinetFest, Kansas City, July 2008, and Montana State University Sunday Night Multimedia Series, March 2008.
Poem and Postlude Revisited (2003) for computer-generated sound, based on recordings of soprano Susan Narucki and bass clarinet and birdsong samples. Selected for the International Womens’ Electroacoustic Listening Room Project, part of Women on the Edge Festival, Fullerton, CA, March 2006.
Tango Beep Beep (2003) for pianist Amy Dissanayake, premiered March 2005, Chicago, and May 2005, UCDavis.
Waver and Rustle (2003) for solo bass clarinet. Recorded for Albany records, June 2003. Also performed at Yarmouth Comtemporary Music Days, Oct. 2010.
Celadon (2003) for trumpet and computer-generated sound. Written for Joshua Whitehouse. Premiered at the BEAMS electronic Music Marathon, May 2003.
Deeds (2002) one hour chamber opera, 5-characters. Act 1 of piano version premiered December 2002, UMaine Opera Workshop. Act 2 premiered at UMaine, May 2003. Recording session by Intermezzo Chamber Opera in 2006. Semifinalist in the Opera Vista Chamber Opera Competition, June 2007.
Train (2002) for bass clarinet and tape. Premiered by the composer, October 2002. Also programmed at BEAMS as part of Boston CyberArts Festival, May 3, 2003 and selected for the Electronic Music Northwest Festival, October 2003. Also performed at Texas A&M Univ.-Commerce, spring 2010.
By Means of Red and Green (2002) for violin and percussion. Written for Stuart Marrs and Jan Dobrzelewski, premiered Spring 2003 in Switzerland.
Wounded Trees (2001) for two bassoons and tape. Premiered by Rachael Elliott and Peter Kolkay, Brooklyn, NY, January 2002. Also programmed by ACA Concert Series, NYC, May 2002.
Woodlore II (2002) for children’s chorus, percussion and tape. Premiered by the Asa Adams Chorale, April 2002.
The Moose (2001) for flute, clarinet, trumpet, ‘cello, percussion, piano and tape. Premiered by Cadenzato, September 2001. Also programmed by the Catalyst Ensemble, Huddersfield, UK, February 2003.
Woodlore (2001) for children’s chorus, clarinet and piano. Premiered by the Asa Adams Chorale, December 2001.
Skin and Bones (2000) for flute, horn and tape. Premiered in February 2001. Later programmed at the Otterbein College New Music Festival, May 2003, and by the ACA Contemporary Festival in NYC, June 2003.
Fables of La Fontaine (2000) for voice, chamber group and electronics. Funded by Umaine Summer Research Grant. Premiered March 31, 2001. Also programmed by iChamber, Feb. 2002 and University of Florida Contemporary ensemble, November 2001.
Heralds and Heroines (2000) for chamber orchestra. Commissioned by the Bangor Symphony Orchestra, premiered October 14, 2000.
Voices (2000) for voice, clarinet and piano. Commissioned by the Warren Center for Communication and Learning, premiered June 17, 2000.
Among the Cats of Zanzibar (2000) for percussion quartet. Premiered at the Bar Harbor Music Festival, July 21, 2000.
The Chemistry of Common Things (2000) for baritone, violin and piano. On a text by Joseph Duemer.
Yoikes and Away! (1992-99) for flute and marimba.
Canto Compleanno (1999)for clarinet and tape. Premiered at “Spring in Havana 2000”, March 2000. Also performed at Maine Composers Forum Concert, April 2000, College of the Holy Cross, November 2000, and in a series of new music concerts by Anna Rostrup, Norway, November, 2000.
Black Bear Dance (1999 )for chamber orchestra winds. Premiered by UMaine Orchestra Winds, October 30, 1999.
The Open Air (1999) for chorus, 2 winds, percussion and piano. Commissioned by the UMaine University Singers, on poems by Alice Fogel. Premiered November 1999. Also performed by the Larry Parsons Chorale, West Virginia, February 2000, and on the UMaine University Singers European Tour, June 2000.
Accounting for Things Appearing As They Seem (1999) for soprano and tape. On a poem by Alice Fogel. Premiered by Nancy Ogle, November 1999. Also programmed by Maine Composers Forum, April, 2000.
Swan Song (1998) for violin and tape. Written for Anatole Wieck. Premiered at UMaine, October, 2000. Also programmed by the Boston CyberArts Festival, May 2001.
Great World of Light (1998) for ‘cello and piano, with soprano in third movement. Commissioned and premiered by Baycha Voronietsky, January 1999. Also programmed by Phantom Arts Ensemble, in Boston, February 9, 2001.
This is why she had to quit her band (1998) for flute and tape. Premiered by Elizabeth Downing. Selected for performance at the SEAMUS 1999 National Conference, San Jose State Univ., and at the Western Illinois University Festival of New Music, March 1999, in the Boston 1999 Cyberarts Festival, Northeastern University, May 6, and the SCI Region I Conference, November 1999.
Moose Next 5 Miles (1998) for 5 flutes. Written for the Howling Winds Flute Choir. Performed at the National Flute Convention, Phoenix, AZ, August 1998, used in readings at the National Flute Convention in Atlanta, 1999.
Vespona (1998) for 5 players. Premiered at UMaine Faculty Recital, Feb. 1999. Also performed by North/South Consonance, New York, March 2000, and by ensemble X at the National SCI Conference, 2001.
Turning Figures (1998) for clarinet trio. Received Honorable Mention in the 1st Annual Trio Indiana Composition Contest, 1998.
Four Ambitions (1997) on poems by Lola Haskins, for soprano, clarinet and piano. Winner of the Orvis Prize for Vocal Composition. Performed at the University of Hawaii, March 8, 2000. Recorded by Nancy Ogle at UMaine, June 1998 and by Susan Narucki at SUNY Purchase, June 2003. Selected for performance at the SCI Region I Conference, November 1998.
Sleek but Functional (1998) for bass clarinet and wind ensemble. Commissioned by the UMaine Symphonic Band premiered November 1998. Also performed on Symphonic Band tour, May 1999.
Italy (1997) for soprano and piano, on a text by Constance Hunting. Commissioned by the Women in the Curriculum Committee for the Marianne Hartman Awards, November 1997.
Rhythmic Breathing (1997) for clarinet, bass clarinet and tape. Premiered by F. Gerard Errante and the composer, March 1998.
Tightrope (1997) for woodwind quintet. Premiered at the Warebrook Festival of Contemporary Music, July 1999. Also programmed by U.S. Marine Band Chamber Music Program, April 2000.
As It Turns Out and I Feel Cool (1996)two short tape pieces on sampled vocal sounds.
Hornpipe Dreams (1996) for violin and tape. Premiered by Debbie Wong at Cal State Long Beach, July 1997. Subsequent performance by Anatole Wieck (University of Maine, 1998) and Terrie Baune (UCDavis, 1998) and Linda Quan (New York New Music Ensemble, 2001). Selected for performance at the SEAMUS 1998 National Conference, Dartmouth College, the Regional CMS Conference, Potsdam, May 1999.
Notes Toward a Theory of Marriage (1996) for baritone and tape.
Tutti i battuti, tutti il tempo (1996)Percussion quartet for non-pitched instruments. Premiered by UMaine Percussion Ensemble, Nov. 1999.
Canon and Fantasy (1996)for guitar trio. Commissioned by Linda Winchurch, premiered December 1996.
Poem and Postlude (1996) for soprano, bass clarinet and computer-generated tape. Texts by Lisa Steinman and anonymous. Written for Susan Narucki, premiered in February, 1997. Also performed at Southeastern Composers League Forum, April 1997, and the Northeast Regional SCI Conference at MIT, October 1997, the Studio of Electronic Music, Hartford, CT, March 1998, and the Maine Composers Forum, April 2000.
Vespa (1996) for solo E-flat or B-flat clarinet.
On a poem by Donald Justice (1996) for soprano and mezzo-soprano. Commissioned by Susan Narucki for performance in Amsterdam, 1997.
Wail and Wheeze (1995) for bass clarinet, trombone and tuba. Premiered March, 1996.
The Shortness of all the notes (1995) for 10 winds and computer-generated tape. Commissioned by the Greater Salisbury Winds. Premiered May 1996.
A Fixture (1995) for soprano and B-flat clarinet, on a poem by May Swenson. Premiered at Salisbury State University, November 1995. Also performed at George Washington University, March 1996.
Settings (1995) 4 songs for soprano and seven players.
Copperplate (1995) for clarinet and computer-generated tape. Premiered by the composer, Salisbury State University, March 1996.
Scene (1994) For baritone and percussion, on a poem by Joseph Duemer. Written for Paul Hillier, premiered in May, 1995 at UCDavis.
A Cold Spring (1994) for piano and computer-generated tape. Premiered by Emily Wong- George for New York Women Composers, October 1994. Subsequent performance by Judith Radell, Pennsylvania, March 1996, and at the MidAmerican Center for Contemporary Music, Bowling Green, February 1997, and the University of Maine, February 1998.
Caravan (1994) for bass clarinet and computer-generated tape. Premiered by the Holy Cross Chamber Players, April 1984. Subsequent performances at the CMS Mid-Atlantic Region Annual Meeting, Elon College, North Carolina, March 1996, the Electro-acoustic Concert Series of Brooklyn College, October, 1996, Connecticut College Art and Technology Symposium, February, 1997, the Studio of Electronic Music, Hartford, Ct, March 1998, and the SEAMUS National Conference, Kansas City, April 1997.
Canopy (1988-1994) for clarinet, viola and piano. Revised version premiered by Alea III, Boston University, 1994. Also presented by Composers Forum, New York, October 1994.
Two Silly Songs (1993) for soprano, 2 clarinets, viola, ‘cello and double bass. Texts by Ezra Pound and Tom Chandler. Premiered by the Composers Ensemble at the Dartington Festival, England, August 1994.
Small Wonder (1993) five songs for SATB choir. Two songs read by the Gregg Smith Singers, July 1993, and two performed by the Holy Cross Madrigal Group, December 1992. Selections also performed by Sacred and Profane, San Francisco, 1995 and St. Mary’s College Chorale, March 1997, University of Maine Chorale, April 1998.
Looks Like Rain (1993) for mezzo-soprano, viola and harpsichord. Texts by Elizabeth Bishop, Babette Deutsch and Joseph Duemer. Written for the Fortunato- McCarthy-Christie Trio, and premiered in March 1993 at Boston Conservatory and Trinity College.
The Plain Presentation of it (1992) for soprano, flute and violin. Texts by Lisa Steinman, April Bernard and Marianne Moore. Premiered by the Holy Cross Chamber Players, April 1992. Also performed by Currents at the University of Richmond, April 1994, Musicians Accord, May 1994, and Continuum, March 1997.
Villancico (1991-94) for flute, clarinet, viola and ‘cello. Premiered by Earplay, San Francisco, 1992. Revised version performed January 1994. Also presented by the Washington Square Contemporary Players, November, 1996, and Digital Renaissance Consort, Los Angeles, April 1998.
Not Dressed for this (1991)for clarinet and ‘cello. Performed by Griffin Music Ensemble, 1991 and by the Thomas-Aureden Duo, 1992.
Two Poems by April Bernard (1991) for soprano, piano and double bass. Premiered by Hyperion, March 1992. Subsequent performances at the University of Georgia and at Indiana University of Pennsylvania, 1996.
Another Momentary Feat (1991) for chamber orchestra. Premiered at the Composers Conference, Wellesley College, August 1991. Revised version read by the Women’s Philharmonic, June 1992.
What’s the Railroad to me? (1991) for soprano, clarinet, violin and piano. Text by Thoreau. Premiere sponsored by the Thoreau Society, July 1991.
Simple Songs (1990-?) a collection of 23 songs for soprano and piano on various texts. Groups of songs premiered by Karol Bennett/John MacDonald, 1990, by Maria Tegzes/Geoff Burleson, 1991, Martha Elliott/Timothy MacFarland, 1994, Joan Heller/Igor Uryash, Brandeis Contemporary Players, 1996. Also performed at the 3rd Annual Festival of Women Composers, March 1993, at the National Museum for Women in the Arts, Washington DC, June 1993, the National Poetry Conference, Orono, Maine 1996, George Washington University, September 1997 by Susan Bender, Peabody Conservatory, November 1997, Indiana University and Amsterdam, Fall 1998 by Patricia Green, Ensemble 21 at Merkin Hall, NYC, February 1999, and at the 92nd St. Y, New York, March 2000, the Modnadnock Festival, July 2000, University of Maryland, Sept. 2000, the Grachtenfestival 2000 Amsterdam, August 2000 by Susan Narucki. Winner of the Annual Composition Contest sponsored by American Women Composers, 1993. “Night Thought” selected for recording by Susan Narucki and Alan Feinberg, 1998, and by the American Celebration Duo, for release on innova records, 1999. “A Soul Selects” recorded by Nancy Ogle and Ginger Hwalek, released by Capstone Records, 2000. A more complete recording of the collection is available from Albany Records, Why Performers Wear Black.
Night Songs (1990) Commissioned and premiered by the Wellesley College Chorus, 1991.
Beasts of the Field (1990) for flute and clarinet. Premiered by Holy Cross Chamber Players, 1991. Also performed by UCDavis Contemporary Players and New York Women Composers, Longy School of Music Faculty series. Published by Freeland Press.
The Boy who drew cats (1989) for bass clarinet and percussion. Commissioned by the “Young- at-Arts” Program of the Wang Center, Boston. Premiered January 1990.
Fantasy is a place where it rains (1989) Concerto for amplified guitar and strings. Commissioned by the Portland Metropolitan Arts Commission for “Artquake ’91″
and soloist John Tamburello. Performed by Alea II, Stanford University, May 1993. Published by Nambe/Acoma Publications.
Basia Nova (1988) for french horn, bassoon and piano. Commissioned and premiered by LyRA Soloists, 1989. Also performed by Western Carolina State University Faculty Players, 1992, and at Angelo State University, Texas, September 2008.
Ballad (1988) for sextet. Premiered by Griffin Music Ensemble, October 1990.
Urban Contemporary (1988) for violin and marimba. Winner in the Marimolin Composition Contest. Performed by Marimolin, 1988; Parnassus, 1990; Composers Concordance, 1991; the Buffalo New Music Ensemble, 1989; the UCDavis Contemporary Players, 1989 and Griffin Music Ensemble, 1989. Published by Music for Percussion, Inc.
Jerusalem the Golden (1987) for string quartet. Premiered by the Boston Composers String Quartet, 1988.
To the Moon (1985) for soprano, oboe, bassoon and piano. Premiered by the Fiati Chamber Players, 1985.
Logic and “The Magic Flute” (1985) for soprano, violin, ‘cello and piano. Commissioned and premiered by the New York Camerata, March 1985.
Setting for Shusaku Endo (1983) for piano and winds. Performed by members of the E.A.R. Unit, July 1984, by the Princeton Chamber Ensemble, January 1985, and by the Composer’s Symposium at the University of New Mexico, March 1992.